Classic Histories from the Portuguese-Speaking World in Translation
Brazil at the Dawn of the Eighteenth Century
Brazil at the Dawn of the Eighteenth Century
André João Antonil;
Timothy Coates, trans.;
Stuart B. Schwartz, pref.

Tagus Press at UMass Dartmouth

2012 . 246 pp. 13 illus. 6 x 9"
History / Latin American History / Brazil

$24.95 Paperback, 978-1-933227-44-3
$24.99 Ebook, 978-1-933227-51-1

Table of Contents of Brazil at the Dawn of the Eighteenth Century

  • Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Preface – Stuart B. Schwartz
  • Introduction


  • The Resources a Royal Sugar Mill Owner Should Possess
  • How the Sugar Planter Should Act in the Purchase, Upkeep, and Leasing of His Lands
  • How the Planter Should Deal with Tenants and His Other Neighbors and They with Him
  • How the Planter Should Behave in Choosing the Hands and Skilled Workers He Engages, Beginning with the Choice of Chaplain
  • The Head Overseer and the Subordinate Overseers who Preside in the Milling, the Estate, and the Cane Fields; Their Duties and Salaries
  • The Sugar Master, the Assistant Master or Banqueiro, and the Assistant Banqueiro
  • The Sugar Refiner
  • The Bookkeeper on the Plantation
  • How the Planter Should Treat His Slaves
  • How the Planter Should Act in Directing His Family and Ordinary Household Expenses
  • How the Planter Should Receive Guests, Whether Religious or Laymen
  • How the Planter Should Deal with Merchants as well as with His Agents in the Market Place; Some of the Ways of Buying and Selling Sugar, as Practiced in Brazil
  • The Choice of Land on Which to Plant the Cane, and for Supplying Provisions Needed for the Mill
  • Planting and Weeding Canes, and the Different Kinds of Them
  • Enemies of the Cane in the Field
  • Cutting the Cane and Carrying It to the Mill
  • The Mill, the Building Housing It, and How Water Powers It
  • How the Cane Is Milled and the Number of People Required to Mill It
  • The Wood Used to Make the Rollers, and All Other Woodworking on the Plantation, Canoes and Boats, and What Is Normally Paid to Carpenters and Similar Workers
  • Furnaces, Their Equipment, the Required Firewood, and the Ash Used for Leaching
  • The Cauldrons and Copper Vessels, Their Organization, the Skilled Workers and Others Required, and the Tools They Use
  • Cleaning and Purifying the Caldo from the Cane in the Cauldrons and the Filtering Kettle until It Reaches the Boiling Pans
  • How Melado Is Cooked and Whisked in the Boiling Pans
  • The Three Temperings of Melado and Its Correct Distribution in the Molds
  • Regarding the Molds for Sugar and Their Movement from the Cooling Shed to the Refinery
  • Refining the Sugar in Its Molds
  • The People Required to Refine, Separate, Dry, and Crate the Sugar; the Tools Needed to Do This
  • The Clay Used for the Sugar Molds; What Type It Should Be, How It Should Be Kneaded, and If it Is Wise to Have a Pottery Workshop on the Plantation
  • How Sugar Is Refined in the Molds and How It Is Treated in the Refinery
  • How Sugar Is Removed from the Molds, Separated, and Dried
  • Weighing, Distributing, and Crating the Sugar
  • Various Types of Sugar Crated Separately, the Marks on the Crates, and Their Transport to the Warehouse
  • The Past and Present Prices of Sugar
  • The Number of Crates of Sugar Normally Produced Each Year in Brazil
  • The Cost of a Crate of Sugar of Thirty-Five Arrobas Cleared through the Customs House in Lisbon, and the Value of All Sugar Produced in Brazil Each Year
  • The Suffering of Sugar from the Time It Is Born in the Field until It Leaves Brazil


  • How Tobacco was Developed in Brazil and What Esteem It Has Attained
  • The Labor of Tobacco, How It Is Seeded, Transplanted, and Weeded, and When to Plant It
  • How the Tobacco Leaves Are Picked and Cured and How These Are Treated and Made into Coils
  • How Tobacco Is Cured after Making Coils
  • How Tobacco Is Rolled and Encased in Leather and Those Engaged in This Entire Process from Planting until Rolling
  • The Second and Third Collections of Tobacco Leaves and Their Diverse Qualities for Chewing, Smoking, or Grinding
  • How Tobacco Is Ground, Sifted, Powdered, and Perfumed
  • The Moderate Use of Tobacco for Health and the Great Injury Done to the Health However It Is Used
  • How Tobacco Is Cleared through the Customs House of Bahia
  • The Cost of One Roll of Tobacco of Eight Arrobas, Sent from Bahia to the Customs House in Lisbon, with Duties Paid, Ready to Ship
  • The High Regard in Which Brazilian Tobacco Is Held in Europe and Other Parts of the World, and the Great Tax Revenues It Provides the Royal Treasury: The Penalties for Trafficking in Tobacco Not Cleared through Customs and Methods Used to Avoid Taxation


  • The Gold Mines Discovered in Brazil
  • The Gold Mines Called “General” and Who Discovered Them
  • The Other Gold Mines along the Rio das Velhas and in Caeté
  • The Yield from the Creeks and the Different Qualities of Gold Extracted from Them
  • The People in the Mines and Who Mine Gold in the Streams
  • The Rights or Shares of the Mines
  • The Great Availability of Equipment and Daily Necessities in the Mines and the Indifference about Their Extraordinarily High Prices
  • The Different Prices for Gold Sold in Brazil and the Amounts of Gold Annually Extracted from the Mines
  • The Obligation to Pay the King, Our Lord, One-Fifth of the Gold Extracted from the Mines in Brazil
  • The Route from the Town of São Paulo to the General Mines and to the Rio das Velhas
  • The Old Route from the City of Rio de Janeiro to the General Mines of Cataguás and the Rio das Velhas
  • The New Route from the City of Rio de Janeiro to the Mines
  • The Route from the City of Bahia to the Mines of the Rio das Velhas
  • How Gold is Extracted from the Mines and Creeks in Brazil, as Observed by Someone Traveling with Governor Artur de Sá
  • How to Recognize Silver Mines
  • How to Recognize Silver and Purify Metals
  • The Damage Done to Brazil by Greed Following the Discovery of Gold in Mines


  • The Great Expanses of Land for Pastures in Brazil, Filled with Cattle
  • The Herds Normally Conducted from Their Ranches to the Cities, Towns, and Bays of Brazil Destined for Both the Slaughterhouse as well as Sugar Mills, Tobacco Farms, and Other Places of Industry
  • Transporting Herds from the Interior, the Normal Prices for Cattle for Slaughter and Cattle for Farmers
  • The Cost of One Hide of Leather and Half a Hide, Treated and Exported from Brazil, Placed in the Lisbon Customs House
  • Summary of Everything Normally Exported Annually from Brazil to Portugal and Its Value
  • The Last Chapter: How It Is Only Just that Brazil Is Favored Because of Its Value to the Kingdom of Portugal
  • Notes
  • Glossary
  • Index
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